Scientific Research News | Research Progress of novel coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) (XXXIII)
1. COVID-19 Alert
■ On March 3, the World Health Organization released its latest outbreak report. The report notes that six new countries have reported confirmed cases of coronavirus infection in the past 2 hours. As of 24 a.m. on March 6, 3 countries outside China had reported a total of 2,10 confirmed cases and 64 deaths.
On the same day, WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said at a media briefing on the novel coronavirus: "In the past 24 hours, the number of cases reported outside China is almost nine times that of inside China. The outbreaks in South Korea, Italy, Iran and Japan are our top concerns. I would also like to inform you that a WHO team arrived in Iran this afternoon to deliver supplies and support the government's response. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of the United Arab Emirates, for his support in making this operation possible.
A staff member of the WHO country office in Iran has now been tested for the novel coronavirus and is mildly ill. South Korea has now reported more than 4200,22 cases and 5 deaths, meaning the country accounts for more than half of the cases reported outside China. But cases in South Korea appear to be mainly from suspected cases in groups of <> known clusters, rather than from the community. This is important because it shows that surveillance measures are working and that the outbreak in South Korea can still be contained.
Knowing and understanding the pandemic is the first step in defeating it. The case in South Korea also shows that this is a unique virus with unique characteristics. This virus is not influenza. We're stepping into areas we've never been involved before. We've never seen a respiratory pathogen like this before: it can spread in the community, but it can be controlled with the right measures. Had this been a flu outbreak, we should now see widespread community transmission across the globe, and efforts to slow or contain it would not be effective. However, containing the novel coronavirus outbreak is feasible and must be a priority for all countries. ”
(WHO 3 March outbreak report, see: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/2-sitrep-20200302-covid-42.pdf?sfvrsn=19a63f4f9_2)
■ On March 3, due to the surge in the number of confirmed cases in Italy and other countries, according to the official website of the European Union, the EU raised the risk level of the new coronavirus from "moderate" to "high".
■ On February 2, the team of Professor Chen Jingyu, a lung transplant expert in China and vice president of Wuxi People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, successfully completed the first double lung transplant operation for a patient with new coronary pneumonia turned negative in Wuxi. On March 29, 3 hours after surgery, the patient was successfully released from ECMO (commonly known as "artificial lung", which is a medical emergency technology equipment, mainly used to provide continuous extracorporeal breathing and circulation for patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure to maintain the patient's life). The patient, a 2-year-old male, was diagnosed with critical new coronary pneumonia, and after endotracheal intubation ventilator application + ECMO maintenance and drug treatment, the continuous nucleic acid test was negative, but both lungs have been severely damaged and irreversible. On February 37, after discussion by provincial experts, there were indications for lung transplantation, that is, transferred to Wuxi. Finally, after more than 59 hours of surgery, Chen Jingyu's team successfully performed the world's first double lung transplant of a new coronary pneumonia case in Wuxi.
2. COVID-19 epidemiological studies
■ On February 2, researchers from Xi'an Medical College and other units jointly published a research paper called "Estimate the incubation period of coronavirus 29 (COVID-2019)" on the medical preprint platform medRxiv. The researchers analyzed 19 datasets in 19 regions of China except Hubei and found that the median incubation period of COVID-10 (59.19 days) was close to the median incubation period of SARS (5.01 days), and the average incubation period of COVID-4 (6.5 days) was also slightly longer compared to the average incubation period of MERS of 5.19 days. The authors believe that COVID-5 is spreading faster than SARS, in part because 84-nCoV has more complex transmission dynamics, for example, some people without obvious clinical symptoms can still be diagnosed as COVID-19 patients. The statistical results show a significant difference between the two groups aged older than or equal to 2019 and those younger than 19 years old, and that the two groups can be separated linearly in machine learning, so the authors note that healthcare workers may need to apply different treatment options to these two different groups. In addition, the results of this paper suggest that longer isolation periods (e.g., 40 days) may be better than the recognized 40 days, and even that different isolation periods should be used for two groups of people aged 17 years or older and younger than 14 years of age, with the former generally requiring longer isolation than the latter .
■ On February 2, experts from Chongqing Army Medical University and Xuzhou Oriental People's Hospital jointly published a paper entitled: "COVID-29 outbreak increased risk of schizophrenia in aged adults" on ChinaRxiv, a pre-release platform for scientific and technological papers of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, finding that since the outbreak of new crown pneumonia, the incidence of schizophrenia has increased significantly, and the incidence population has aged, suggesting that while doing a good job in epidemic prevention and anti-epidemic work, It is also necessary to pay attention to the construction of psychological defense lines for the broad masses of the people. The researchers retrospectively studied the visit records of 19,2020 patients in Xuzhou Dongfang People's Hospital (Psychiatric Prevention and Treatment Hospital) in January 1, including 13783,1210 first-time patients (8.75%) and 12573,91 repeat patients (22.25%). The researchers found that the number of schizophrenic patients in the early days of the confirmed outbreak of the new coronavirus pneumonia (the end of January) increased by 2017% from the beginning of January, and an average increase of 2019% from the same period in 10-2017, and ruled out the possibility of increased incidence caused by the Spring Festival holiday and season. The researchers further found that the number of patients at the end of January showed a certain correlation with the number of outbreaks of new coronary pneumonia in the world. In addition, the median age of initial patients increased from 2019 years old in 39-50 to 2 years old this year, indicating that the panic caused by the new crown pneumonia has affected a large group and focused on the mental health of the elderly. Starting from schizophrenia, this study highlights the potential harm of new coronary pneumonia to people's mental health, and the elderly are at double risk of virus and mental stress. The authors strongly urge that public health care should be prepared in advance to address potential risks to public mental health in countries with or without infected patients [<>].
■ On February 2, Academician Zhong Nanshan's team published a report entitled "Modified SEIR and AI prediction of the epidemics trend of COVID-28 in China under public health interventions" in the Journal of Thoracic Disease (Based on SEIR optimization model and AI prediction of COVID-19 outbreak trends in China under public health intervention). The study predicts that the national COVID-19 outbreak peaks in late February and flattens by the end of April. If the implementation of control measures is delayed by 19 days, the scale of the Chinese mainland epidemic is estimated to triple up; If Wuhan controls are reduced, Hubei may experience a second peak in mid-March and continue into late April. Among them, the optimized SEIR model and AI model predict that there are 2,4 to 5,3 epidemic scales in China as of the end of April. Please do not misunderstand, there is a certain gap between the model prediction and the reality, if the government continues to strictly control the policy, improve the level of diagnosis, and introduce the use of drugs, the scale of the epidemic will be greatly controlled. In addition, the second peak in Hubei mentioned in this article is an assumption made under the condition of reduced control, such as normal Spring Festival and resumption of work. As things stand, the Hubei provincial government will continue to maintain strict control, and the possibility of a second peak is relatively small. At present, the prediction results of this paper are based on the control policy before February 3, and the scale of the epidemic is less than predicted by The Lancet and foreign scholars. Some scholars' predictions do not take into account China's strict control measures, resulting in possible exaggeration of the scale of the epidemic. The article shows that as of the end of April, the peak of existing confirmed cases (non-cumulative confirmed cases) in the domestic epidemic was not higher than 4,4, Hubei was not higher than 9,12 cases, and Guangdong and Zhejiang were not higher than 2,9 cases, and the current epidemic data were all within the forecast range of this article, which was closer to the real situation .
 Han H. Estimate the incubation period of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). medRxiv 2020:2020.02.24.20027474.
 Hu, Wei,Su, Li,Qiao, Juan,Zhu, Jing,Zhou, Yi. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak increased risk of schizophrenia in aged adults. ChinaXiv:202003.00003.
 Yang Z, Zeng Z, Wang K, Wong SS, Liang W, Zanin M, Liu P, Cao X, Gao Z, Mai Z, Liang J, Liu X, Li S, Li Y, Ye F, Guan W, Yang Y, Li F, Luo S, Xie Y, Liu B, Wang Z, Zhang S, Wang Y, Zhong N, He J. Modified SEIR and AI prediction of the epidemics trend of COVID-19 in China under public health interventions. J Thorac Dis 2020.
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